Shell script: Convert text to lowercase and uppercase

Shell script


By bm on March 23, 2017 | ubuntu | 1 comment
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Ubuntu Install Oracle Java 8

Add repository


Install Java

Setting Java environment variables

chk java version

Get installation path

Switching between Oracle Java 8 and Java 7

Setting Up JAVA_HOME

Edit /etc/profile (sudo nano /etc/profile ) and add the following

save the file and execute

By bm on October 2, 2016 | ubuntu | A comment?
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Ubuntu Install LAMP using Tasksel

Tasksel installation

First we need to install Tasksel (Tasksel is a Debian/Ubuntu tool that installs multiple related packages as a co-ordinated “task” onto your system. This program is used during the installation process, but users can also use tasksel at any time.)

open teminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and execute the command

 install tasksel

After installing Tasksel open the tasksel


Move the cursor using arrow key and keep cursor near LAMP server and press space button from keyboard for selection, after selecting you can see a star inside the square bracket  (press the space again for remove selection )

select for install

Press enter key for proceed installation

while installing it will ask for mysql user password and confirm password. Provide password and press enter key to proceed



You are done with the installation,

You can see a www folder created in /var folder.

Open your browser and type http://localhost you can see a default page.


Now you can create your php files inside /var/www/html (Document root) folder, if you kee the folder outside html folder (/var/www) it will not work.

How to change document root

Open default.conf file (located in /etc/apache2/site-available/000-default.conf) with super user permission


You can see the DocumentRoot /var/www/html, this you can change to /var/www (you can set any of your folder as document root just give your folder path after DocumentRoot )


Save this file

create a php file outside html folder (/var/www) and add some content


Restart apache and test http://localhost/index.php in your browser


By bm on September 25, 2016 | ubuntu | A comment?
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linux change file/folder ownership

Changing file ownership

Changing group ownership of a file/folder



ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chown

ref : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chgrp

By bm on May 9, 2016 | ubuntu | A comment?

linux change file/folder permission

Viewing permissions

Changing permissions


Copying permissions

Numeric method

Permission Groups :

  • u – Owner
  • g – Group
  • o or a – All Users

Permission Types :

  • r – Read
  • w – Write
  • x – Execute

Binary References

  • r = 4
  • w = 2
  • x = 1
777(rwxrwxrwx) No restrictions on permissions. Anybody may do anything. Generally not a desirable setting.
755(rwxr-xr-x) The file’s owner may read, write, and execute the file. All others may read and execute the file. This setting is common for programs that are used by all users.
700(rwx——) The file’s owner may read, write, and execute the file. Nobody else has any rights. This setting is useful for programs that only the owner may use and must be kept private from others.
666(rw-rw-rw-) All users may read and write the file.
644(rw-r–r–) The owner may read and write a file, while all others may only read the file. A common setting for data files that everybody may read, but only the owner may change.
600(rw——-) The owner may read and write a file. All others have no rights. A common setting for data files that the owner wants to keep private.
By bm on | ubuntu | A comment?

How to upgrade ubuntu

Take all the update and run update-manager -d from terminal


By bm on May 6, 2016 | ubuntu | A comment?